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Gladiators Of Rome

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Gladiators of Rome ist ein italienischer computeranimierter Comedy-Film aus dem Jahr , der von Rainbow SpA, einem Studio von Iginio Straffi und Viacom, produziert wurde. Paramount Pictures von Viacom veröffentlichte den Film in Nordamerika. Bis er eines Tages die wundervolle Lucilla trifft und plötzlich sein Kampfgeist geweckt wird. Wird er der größte Gladiator werden, den Rom je gesehen hat? Gladiators of Rome - PC by Activision - Kostenloser Versand ab 29€. Jetzt bei basketballtickets.co bestellen! basketballtickets.co - Kaufen Sie Gladiators of Rome günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. Daniela Abbruzzese, Stefano Alessandroni, Luca Argentero, Enzo Avolio, Gladiators of Rome (Gladiatori di Roma), Gladiators of Rome, Gladiatori di Roma.

Gladiators Of Rome

Daniela Abbruzzese, Stefano Alessandroni, Luca Argentero, Enzo Avolio, Gladiators of Rome (Gladiatori di Roma), Gladiators of Rome, Gladiatori di Roma. Gladiators of Rome ist ein italienischer computeranimierter Comedy-Film aus dem Jahr , der von Rainbow SpA, einem Studio von Iginio Straffi und Viacom, produziert wurde. Paramount Pictures von Viacom veröffentlichte den Film in Nordamerika. Bis er eines Tages die wundervolle Lucilla trifft und plötzlich sein Kampfgeist geweckt wird. Wird er der größte Gladiator werden, den Rom je gesehen hat? E-Bike Tours. TV Tour. Secure your must-do activities without being locked in. Gondola Cruises. Top Kommentare. Dance Lessons. Classic Car Tours. Loading available options Nature and Wildlife. We are sorry for link inconvenience caused whilst trying to find your next trip. Quickly access bookings. Allgemeine Informationen. VR Experiences. Eco Tours. Send it to link Email priceguarantee viator. Livy's published works are often embellished with illustrative rhetorical. October 4, Alternate Versions. Like the theaters, the gladiator schools had also seats for spectators and it was a favorite time for Romans to observe the training of their gladiators. Because the gladiators were cost a lot of money the owners treated them with care. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user check this out.

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There were over two dozen different types of gladiators , distinguished from each other by the weapons they used, the armor they wore, the fighting styles they employed, and the events at which they fought.

Below you will find a list of the most recognizable ones:. There were female gladiators, although they were a very small minority and according to writings from the times, they were apparently viewed as an oddity and a peculiar entertainment, more than as simply a regular type of gladiator.

Gladiators belonged to the infame class, infamous , and as such their lives were forfeit and belonged to their masters. Gladiatorial schools were incredibly strict, and the training they provided was harsh, with some archaeological evidence suggesting that gladiators could be killed as punishment for misbehavior.

In school, gladiators would likely train under a master who was an expert in their particular style of combat, and all the different groups were kept separate from each other, possibly so as to avoid conflicts between combatants who would meet in the arena.

Upon entering gladiator school those who had not been condemned to it as punishment for a crime , gladiators would sign a contract stipulating the type of combatant they would become, how many times a year they would fight, and signing themselves over into the property of their master.

Most gladiators lived and died anonymously, but a few became popular celebrities and their names have reached the present day.

Spartacus is without a doubt the most famous gladiator of the Roman Empire, and he was in fact a real person. He was a Thracian soldier or mercenary who ended up being sold a slave and then became a gladiator.

He was one of the leaders of a revolt at the gladiator school of Capua, which ended in 70 of the trainees escaping. After their escape and some subsequent skirmishes with the roman military, which the gladiators won, their ranks grew until they became an army of multiple tens of thousands.

Spartacus led this rebel slave army in what came to be known as the Third Servile War, until his forces were routed and he was supposedly killed in 71 BC.

Most often, gladiators engaged in one on one combat and would be paired against different types that were considered complementary. Murmillos often fought against Thracians, as well as Hoplomachus, and Retiarius.

Retiarius net and trident wielders usually faced gladiators armed with more conventional weapons.

Fights were highly organized and monitored by referees. Not all ended in death. And as they say, if "fortune favors the bold" in Rome hard times are awaiting for Timo and the gang.

Wilson on a comedy film, but it was "still a top-secret topic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Gladiators of Rome Italian theatrical release poster.

Rainbow SpA Viacom. Screen International. Lyman, Eric February 15, The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 20, Animation Magazine.

Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 9 August Cineuropa - the best of european cinema. Retrieved 26 May Cineuropa in Italian.

Corriere della Sera in Italian. Ce lo racconta Iginio Straffi". Interviewed by Valentina Neri. Il Giornale in Italian. Categories : films Italian-language films Italian 3D films Italian films Italian fantasy comedy films Italian animated films s children's fantasy films s fantasy-comedy films Animated comedy films Films set in Rome Films set in the Roman Empire Films set in the 1st century English-language films computer-animated films Films about gladiatorial combat comedy films.

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At times, a gladiator could be freed after winning five fights or, regularly, performing particularly well in one clash. Their name derives from the rudis wooden sword they received as symbol of freedom.

Most rudiari became body guards, trainers or simply retired into anonymity. But some would continue to fight in the arena, for their skills made them extremely popular and they could demand very high payment for their performances.

The editors were always interested in adding rudiari to their program. They were a kind of glorified executioner. Their opponents were Noxii — criminals or prisoners of war- condemned to death.

The Noxii will fight each other, one with a sword but blindfolded and the other unarmed but with no blindfold.

They wore little, if any armor. The winner would fight the Tertiarius. The result of the battle was never in doubt.

The general public loved this type of conflict. The Tertiarius additionally filled in for announced gladiators who for any reason could not appear on the arena that day.

Sagittarius is Latin for archer. They were mounted bowmen that participated in mock battles or hunted wild animals.

The bow use was the Parthian; short, curved and of Middle Eastern origin. Gladiatorial games, usually linked with beast shows, spread throughout the Republic and beyond.

Legislation of AD by Marcus Aurelius did little to stop it, and was completely ignored by his son, Commodus.

The decline of the munus was a far from straightforward process. Still, emperors continued to subsidize the games as a matter of undiminished public interest.

Ten years later, he forbade criminals being forced to fight to the death as gladiators:. Bloody spectacles do not please us in civil ease and domestic quiet.

For that reason we forbid those people to be gladiators who by reason of some criminal act were accustomed to deserve this condition and sentence.

You shall rather sentence them to serve in the mines so that they may acknowledge the penalties of their crimes with blood [49].

This has been interpreted as a ban on gladiatorial combat. Yet, in the last year of his life, Constantine wrote a letter to the citizens of Hispellum, granting its people the right to celebrate his rule with gladiatorial games.

In , Valentinian I r. In , Theodosius I r. Honorius r. According to Theodoret , the ban was in consequence of Saint Telemachus ' martyrdom by spectators at a munus.

In the Byzantine Empire, theatrical shows and chariot races continued to attract the crowds, and drew a generous Imperial subsidy.

It is not known how many gladiatoria munera were given throughout the Roman period. Many, if not most, involved venationes , and in the later Empire some may have been only that.

In BC, at least one munus was held during April's Megalesia. In the early Imperial era, munera in Pompeii and neighbouring towns were dispersed from March through November.

They included a provincial magnate's five-day munus of thirty pairs, plus beast-hunts. Of days reserved for spectacles of various kinds, were for theatrical shows, 64 for chariot races and just 10 in December for gladiator games and venationes.

A century before this, the emperor Alexander Severus r. As Wiedemann points out, December was also the month for the Saturnalia , Saturn's festival, in which death was linked to renewal, and the lowest were honoured as the highest.

The earliest munera took place at or near the tomb of the deceased and these were organised by their munerator who made the offering.

Later games were held by an editor , either identical with the munerator or an official employed by him.

As time passed, these titles and meanings may have merged. From the Principate onwards, private citizens could hold munera and own gladiators only under Imperial permission, and the role of editor was increasingly tied to state officialdom.

Bigger games were put on by senior magistrates, who could better afford them. The largest and most lavish of all were paid for by the emperor himself.

The earliest types of gladiator were named after Rome's enemies of that time: the Samnite , Thracian and Gaul.

The Samnite, heavily armed, elegantly helmed and probably the most popular type, [ citation needed ] was renamed secutor and the Gaul renamed murmillo , once these former enemies had been conquered then absorbed into Rome's Empire.

In the mid-republican munus , each type seems to have fought against a similar or identical type.

In the later Republic and early Empire, various "fantasy" types were introduced, and were set against dissimilar but complementary types.

For example, the bareheaded, nimble retiarius "net-man" , armoured only at the left arm and shoulder, pitted his net, trident and dagger against the more heavily armoured, helmeted Secutor.

Passing literary references to others has allowed their tentative reconstruction. Other novelties introduced around this time included gladiators who fought from chariots or carts , or from horseback.

The trade in gladiators was empire-wide, and subjected to official supervision. Rome's military success produced a supply of soldier-prisoners who were redistributed for use in State mines or amphitheatres and for sale on the open market.

In Rome's military ethos, enemy soldiers who had surrendered or allowed their own capture and enslavement had been granted an unmerited gift of life.

Their training as gladiators would give them opportunity to redeem their honour in the munus.

For the poor, and for non-citizens, enrollment in a gladiator school offered a trade, regular food, housing of sorts and a fighting chance of fame and fortune.

Mark Antony chose a troupe of gladiators to be his personal bodyguard. Tiberius offered several retired gladiators , sesterces each to return to the arena.

From the 60s AD female gladiators appear as rare and "exotic markers of exceptionally lavish spectacle". Cassius Dio takes pains to point out that when the much admired emperor Titus used female gladiators, they were of acceptably low class.

Some regarded female gladiators of any type or class as a symptom of corrupted Roman appetites, morals and womanhood. Before he became emperor, Septimius Severus may have attended the Antiochene Olympic Games, which had been revived by the emperor Commodus and included traditional Greek female athletics.

His attempt to give Rome a similarly dignified display of female athletics was met by the crowd with ribald chants and cat-calls.

Caligula , Titus , Hadrian , Lucius Verus , Caracalla , Geta and Didius Julianus were all said to have performed in the arena, either in public or private, but risks to themselves were minimal.

Commodus was a fanatical participant at the ludi , and compelled Rome's elite to attend his performances as gladiator, bestiarius or venator.

Most of his performances as a gladiator were bloodless affairs, fought with wooden swords; he invariably won. He was said to have restyled Nero's colossal statue in his own image as " Hercules Reborn", dedicated to himself as "Champion of secutores ; only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve times one thousand men.

On another occasion, he decapitated a running ostrich with a specially designed dart, carried the bloodied head and his sword over to the Senatorial seats and gesticulated as though they were next.

Gladiator games were advertised well beforehand, on billboards that gave the reason for the game, its editor, venue, date and the number of paired gladiators ordinarii to be used.

Other highlighted features could include details of venationes , executions, music and any luxuries to be provided for the spectators, such as an awning against the sun, water sprinklers, food, drink, sweets and occasionally "door prizes".

For enthusiasts and gamblers, a more detailed program libellus was distributed on the day of the munus , showing the names, types and match records of gladiator pairs, and their order of appearance.

The night before the munus , the gladiators were given a banquet and opportunity to order their personal and private affairs; Futrell notes its similarity to a ritualistic or sacramental "last meal".

The event may also have been used to drum up more publicity for the imminent game. Official munera of the early Imperial era seem to have followed a standard form munus legitimum.

They were followed by a small band of trumpeters tubicines playing a fanfare. Images of the gods were carried in to "witness" the proceedings, followed by a scribe to record the outcome, and a man carrying the palm branch used to honour victors.

The magistrate editor entered among a retinue who carried the arms and armour to be used; the gladiators presumably came in last. The entertainments often began with venationes beast hunts and bestiarii beast fighters.

A crude Pompeian graffito suggests a burlesque of musicians, dressed as animals named Ursus tibicen flute-playing bear and Pullus cornicen horn-blowing chicken , perhaps as accompaniment to clowning by paegniarii during a "mock" contest of the ludi meridiani.

Increasingly the munus was the editor' s gift to spectators who had come to expect the best as their due. Lightly armed and armoured fighters, such as the retiarius , would tire less rapidly than their heavily armed opponents; most bouts would have lasted 10 to 15 minutes, or 20 minutes at most.

Spectators preferred to watch highly skilled, well matched ordinarii with complementary fighting styles; these were the most costly to train and to hire.

A general melee of several, lower-skilled gladiators was far less costly, but also less popular.

Even among the ordinarii , match winners might have to fight a new, well-rested opponent, either a tertiarius "third choice gladiator" by prearrangement; or a "substitute" gladiator suppositicius who fought at the whim of the editor as an unadvertised, unexpected "extra".

Most were probably of poor quality, [] but the emperor Caracalla chose to test a notably skilled and successful fighter named Bato against first one supposicitius , whom he beat, and then another, who killed him.

Combats between experienced, well trained gladiators demonstrated a considerable degree of stagecraft. Among the cognoscenti, bravado and skill in combat were esteemed over mere hacking and bloodshed; some gladiators made their careers and reputation from bloodless victories.

Suetonius describes an exceptional munus by Nero, in which no-one was killed, "not even noxii enemies of the state.

Trained gladiators were expected to observe professional rules of combat. Most matches employed a senior referee summa rudis and an assistant, shown in mosaics with long staffs rudes to caution or separate opponents at some crucial point in the match.

Referees were usually retired gladiators whose decisions, judgement and discretion were, for the most part, respected; [] they could stop bouts entirely, or pause them to allow the combatants rest, refreshment and a rub-down.

Ludi and munera were accompanied by music, played as interludes, or building to a "frenzied crescendo" during combats, perhaps to heighten the suspense during a gladiator's appeal; blows may have been accompanied by trumpet-blasts.

Their instruments are a long straight trumpet tubicen , a large curved horn Cornu and a water organ hydraulis. A match was won by the gladiator who overcame his opponent, or killed him outright.

Victors received the palm branch and an award from the editor. An outstanding fighter might receive a laurel crown and money from an appreciative crowd but for anyone originally condemned ad ludum the greatest reward was manumission emancipation , symbolised by the gift of a wooden training sword or staff rudis from the editor.

Martial describes a match between Priscus and Verus , who fought so evenly and bravely for so long that when both acknowledged defeat at the same instant, Titus awarded victory and a rudis to each.

His gravestone in Sicily includes his record: "Flamma, secutor , lived 30 years, fought 34 times, won 21 times, fought to a draw 9 times, defeated 4 times, a Syrian by nationality.

Delicatus made this for his deserving comrade-in-arms. A gladiator could acknowledge defeat by raising a finger ad digitum , in appeal to the referee to stop the combat and refer to the editor , whose decision would usually rest on the crowd's response.

During the Imperial era, matches advertised as sine missione without remission from the sentence of death suggest that missio the sparing of a defeated gladiator's life had become common practice.

The contract between editor and his lanista could include compensation for unexpected deaths; [] this could be "some fifty times higher than the lease price" of the gladiator.

Under Augustus' rule, the demand for gladiators began to exceed supply, and matches sine missione were officially banned; an economical, pragmatic development that happened to match popular notions of "natural justice".

When Caligula and Claudius refused to spare defeated but popular fighters, their own popularity suffered. In general, gladiators who fought well were likely to survive.

Whether victorious or defeated, a gladiator was bound by oath to accept or implement his editor's decision, "the victor being nothing but the instrument of his [editor's] will.

Once a band of five retiarii in tunics, matched against the same number of secutores , yielded without a struggle; but when their death was ordered, one of them caught up his trident and slew all the victors.

Caligula bewailed this in a public proclamation as a most cruel murder. A gladiator who was refused missio was despatched by his opponent.

To die well, a gladiator should never ask for mercy, nor cry out. For death, when it stands near us, gives even to inexperienced men the courage not to seek to avoid the inevitable.

So the gladiator, no matter how faint-hearted he has been throughout the fight, offers his throat to his opponent and directs the wavering blade to the vital spot.

Epistles , Some mosaics show defeated gladiators kneeling in preparation for the moment of death. Seneca's "vital spot" seems to have meant the neck.

The body of a gladiator who had died well was placed on a couch of Libitina and removed with dignity to the arena morgue, where the corpse was stripped of armour, and probably had its throat cut to prove that dead was dead.

The Christian author Tertullian , commenting on ludi meridiani in Roman Carthage during the peak era of the games, describes a more humiliating method of removal.

One arena official, dressed as the "brother of Jove", Dis Pater god of the underworld strikes the corpse with a mallet.

Another, dressed as Mercury , tests for life-signs with a heated "wand"; once confirmed as dead, the body is dragged from the arena.

Whether these victims were gladiators or noxii is unknown. Modern pathological examination confirms the probably fatal use of a mallet on some, but not all the gladiator skulls found in a gladiators' cemetery.

Whether the corpse of such a gladiator could be redeemed from further ignominy by friends or familia is not known.

The bodies of noxii , and possibly some damnati , were thrown into rivers or dumped unburied; [] Denial of funeral rites and memorial condemned the shade manes of the deceased to restless wandering upon the earth as a dreadful larva or lemur.

The taint of infamia was perpetual. Gladiators could subscribe to a union collegia , which ensured their proper burial, and sometimes a pension or compensation for wives and children.

Otherwise, the gladiator's familia , which included his lanista , comrades and blood-kin, might fund his funeral and memorial costs, and use the memorial to assert their moral reputation as responsible, respectful colleagues or family members.

Some include the gladiator's type, in words or direct representation: for example, the memorial of a retiarius at Verona included an engraved trident and sword.

According to Cassius Dio, the emperor Caracalla gave the gladiator Bato a magnificent memorial and State funeral; [] more typical are the simple gladiator tombs of the Eastern Roman Empire, whose brief inscriptions include the following:.

Titus Flavius Satyrus set up this monument in his memory from his own money. Paitraeites with his cell-mates set this up in memory".

Very little evidence survives of the religious beliefs of gladiators as a class, or their expectations of an afterlife.

Modern scholarship offers little support for the once-prevalent notion that gladiators, venatores and bestiarii were personally or professionally dedicated to the cult of the Graeco-Roman goddess Nemesis.

Rather, she seems to have represented a kind of "Imperial Fortuna " who dispensed Imperial retribution on the one hand, and Imperially subsidised gifts on the other — including the munera.

One gladiator's tomb dedication clearly states that her decisions are not to be trusted. Having no personal responsibility for his own defeat and death, the losing gladiator remains the better man, worth avenging.

Doom killed me, not the liar Pinnas. No longer let him boast. I had a fellow gladiator, Polyneikes, who killed Pinnas and avenged me.

Claudius Thallus set up this memorial from what I left behind as a legacy. A gladiator might expect to fight in two or three munera annually, and an unknown number would have died in their first match.

Few gladiators survived more than 10 contests, though one survived an extraordinary bouts; [] and another died at 90 years of age, presumably long after retirement.

The earliest named gladiator school singular: ludus ; plural: ludi is that of Aurelius Scaurus at Capua. He was lanista of the gladiators employed by the state circa BC to instruct the legions and simultaneously entertain the public.

Socially, they were infames , on a footing with pimps and butchers and despised as price gougers. The Spartacus revolt had originated in a gladiator school privately owned by Lentulus Batiatus , and had been suppressed only after a protracted series of costly, sometimes disastrous campaigns by regular Roman troops.

In the late Republican era, a fear of similar uprisings, the usefulness of gladiator schools in creating private armies, and the exploitation of munera for political gain led to increased restrictions on gladiator school ownership, siting and organisation.

By Domitian 's time, many had been more or less absorbed by the State, including those at Pergamum , Alexandria , Praeneste and Capua.

Roman myrmillones gladiator helmet with relief depicting scenes from the Trojan War from Herculaneum.

In the Imperial era, volunteers required a magistrate's permission to join a school as auctorati. Their contract auctoramentum stipulated how often they were to perform, their fighting style and earnings.

A condemned bankrupt or debtor accepted as novice novicius could negotiate with his lanista or editor for the partial or complete payment of his debt.

Faced with runaway re-enlistment fees for skilled auctorati , Marcus Aurelius set their upper limit at 12, sesterces.

All prospective gladiators, whether volunteer or condemned, were bound to service by a sacred oath sacramentum. Fighting styles were probably learned through constant rehearsal as choreographed "numbers".

An elegant, economical style was preferred. Training included preparation for a stoical, unflinching death. Successful training required intense commitment.

Soldiers were routinely marked on the hand. Gladiators were typically accommodated in cells, arranged in barrack formation around a central practice arena.

Juvenal describes the segregation of gladiators according to type and status, suggestive of rigid hierarchies within the schools: "even the lowest scum of the arena observe this rule; even in prison they're separate".

Retiarii were kept away from damnati , and "fag targeteers" from "armoured heavies". As most ordinarii at games were from the same school, this kept potential opponents separate and safe from each other until the lawful munus.

Its replacement could have housed about and included a very small cell, probably for lesser punishments and so low that standing was impossible.

Despite the harsh discipline, gladiators represented a substantial investment for their lanista and were otherwise well fed and cared for.

Their daily, high-energy, vegetarian diet consisted of barley , boiled beans , oatmeal , ash and dried fruit.

Part of Galen 's medical training was at a gladiator school in Pergamum where he saw and would later criticise the training, diet, and long-term health prospects of the gladiators.

Modern customs and institutions offer few useful parallels to the legal and social context of the gladiatoria munera.

Offenders seen as particularly obnoxious to the state noxii received the most humiliating punishments. These damnati at least might put on a good show and retrieve some respect, and very rarely, survive to fight another day.

Some may even have become "proper" gladiators. Among the most admired and skilled auctorati were those who, having been granted manumission, volunteered to fight in the arena.

Their legal status — slave or free — is uncertain. Under Roman law, a freed gladiator could not "offer such services [as those of a gladiator] after manumission, because they cannot be performed without endangering [his] life.

Payment for such appearances compounded their infamia. They could not vote, plead in court nor leave a will; and unless they were manumitted, their lives and property belonged to their masters.

Some "unfree" gladiators bequeathed money and personal property to wives and children, possibly via a sympathetic owner or familia ; some had their own slaves and gave them their freedom.

Caesar's munus of 46 BC included at least one equestrian, son of a Praetor, and two volunteers of possible senatorial rank.

Thereafter, Caligula flouted them and Claudius strengthened them. Even after the adoption of Christianity as Rome's official religion, legislation forbade the involvement of Rome's upper social classes in the games, though not the games themselves.

His motives are unknown, but his voluntary and "shameless" arena appearance combined the "womanly attire" of a lowly retiarius tunicatus , adorned with golden ribbons, with the apex headdress that marked him out as a priest of Mars.

In Juvenal's account, he seems to have relished the scandalous self-display, applause and the disgrace he inflicted on his more sturdy opponent by repeatedly skipping away from the confrontation.

As munera grew larger and more popular, open spaces such as the Forum Romanum were adapted as the Forum Boarium had been as venues in Rome and elsewhere, with temporary, elevated seating for the patron and high status spectators; they were popular but not truly public events:.

A show of gladiators was to be exhibited before the people in the market-place, and most of the magistrates erected scaffolds round about, with an intention of letting them for advantage.

Caius commanded them to take down their scaffolds, that the poor people might see the sport without paying anything.

But nobody obeying these orders of his, he gathered together a body of labourers, who worked for him, and overthrew all the scaffolds the very night before the contest was to take place.

So that by the next morning the market-place was cleared, and the common people had an opportunity of seeing the pastime.

In this, the populace thought he had acted the part of a man; but he much disobliged the tribunes his colleagues, who regarded it as a piece of violent and presumptuous interference.

Ticket scalpers Locarii sometimes sold or let out seats at inflated prices. Martial wrote that "Hermes [a gladiator who always drew the crowds] means riches for the ticket scalpers".

It was inaugurated by Titus in 80 AD as the personal gift of the Emperor to the people of Rome, paid for by the imperial share of booty after the Jewish Revolt.

Amphitheatres were usually oval in plan. For every epic story of a gladiator becoming a legend of the arena and winning fame and freedom, thousands of others died anonymously on the sand.

They led violent, dangerous lives and were subject to the whims of their superiors. Some managed to overcome these circumstances and became celebrities, but they were a very small minority.

There were over two dozen different types of gladiators , distinguished from each other by the weapons they used, the armor they wore, the fighting styles they employed, and the events at which they fought.

Below you will find a list of the most recognizable ones:. There were female gladiators, although they were a very small minority and according to writings from the times, they were apparently viewed as an oddity and a peculiar entertainment, more than as simply a regular type of gladiator.

Gladiators belonged to the infame class, infamous , and as such their lives were forfeit and belonged to their masters.

Gladiatorial schools were incredibly strict, and the training they provided was harsh, with some archaeological evidence suggesting that gladiators could be killed as punishment for misbehavior.

In school, gladiators would likely train under a master who was an expert in their particular style of combat, and all the different groups were kept separate from each other, possibly so as to avoid conflicts between combatants who would meet in the arena.

Upon entering gladiator school those who had not been condemned to it as punishment for a crime , gladiators would sign a contract stipulating the type of combatant they would become, how many times a year they would fight, and signing themselves over into the property of their master.

Most gladiators lived and died anonymously, but a few became popular celebrities and their names have reached the present day. Spartacus is without a doubt the most famous gladiator of the Roman Empire, and he was in fact a real person.

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